Harmful Effects of Cigarette Smoking

Geeta

By smoking a cigarette, the nicotine present in the cigarette, affects the brain within 10 seconds, latter on it gradually affects the other parts of the body. From head to toe its effects are visible. In smoking, the carbon monoxide starts to dissolve in oxygen hence reducing its efficiency. The oxygen level of the cells began to drop. The arteries become narrower and the blood pressure shoots up. A burning cigarette produces nearly four thousands chemical, of which 200 are extremely poisonous. Among them nearly 60 compounds are carcinogens in nature.




Pharmacological effects of nicotine
· Cardiovascular system (C.V.S.): rise in B.P., tachycardia (accelerated heart rate), cutaneous vasoconstriction (skin turns paler because of less supply of blood due to narrowing of blood vessels)
· Ant diuretic: reduces urine volume due to A.D.H. (anti diuretic hormone) release
· Central nervous system (C.N.S.): stimulation, especially respiratory, vasomotor and emetic centres
· Adrenal: discharge adrenaline
· Automatic: transient stimulation, ultimately depression of all ganglia (nerve cells bodies)

Pharyngeal (throat) and bronchial irritation
· Bronchitis (inflammation of bronchi due to long term exposure to irritants)
· Pneumonia.

Peptic ulcer morality increased Due to associated alcoholism incident of Cirrhosis increased

Carcinoma of following body parts increased
· Oesophagus
· Prostate
· Bronchus
· Bladder

Cardio-vascular disease exacerbated· Myocardial ischemia (reduced blood supply to heart muscles)
· Buerger’s disease (inflammation and clotting of veins and arteries of hands and feet)

Effect on fetus
· Smoking during pregnancy restricts growth and increases prenatal mortality rate

Individual peculiar symptoms
· Tobacco angina
· Atrial extrasystoles (premature electrical impulse in the heart)
· Hypoglycaemia (below normal blood glucose)

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